Tuberculosis is a contagious lung disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Tuberculosis transmission is generally through the air. Tuberculosis not only infects the lungs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but can also attack the bones, intestines, or glands.
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The spread of Tuberculosis is straightforward, from coughing or sneezing. The patient spits droplets of saliva that have been contaminated and inhaled by healthy people whose immune systems are weak, for example, with HIV.
Often the type of latent TB becomes the most suffered by people. Where TB bacteria that are not yet clinically active and appear when it is active. After that, they will show symptoms for some time to come even years later.
Generally, TB sufferers will experience a cough with phlegm for more than two weeks. Sometimes the phlegm released will be colored like rust or even coughing up blood. Besides, several other symptoms are fever, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, chest pain, and night sweats.
Tuberculosis is a disease that is difficult to detect. Especially if the sufferer is a child, the doctor will do a chest x-ray, skin test (Mantoux), blood test, and sputum test to diagnose this.
As one of the prevention efforts, newborn BCG vaccine is recommended before the age of 3 months, optimal at the age of 2 months.
You can always use a mask when in the crowd for adults, do not forget to close your mouth when sneezing, coughing, laughing, and do not throw phlegm or spit anywhere.